Геотехник

Геотехникийн инженерийн зарчимууд

Principles of Geotechnical Engineering, SI Edition, 8th Edition

Энэхүү ном нь буурийн хөрсний геотехникийн шинж чанар, түүнд гаднаас үйлчилж байгаа ачаанаас үүсэх хүчдэл, хэв гажилтыг хэрхэн тодорхойлох болон маш олон төрлийн жишээ бодлого болон дадлага ажлууд багтсан 8 дахь удаагын хэвлэл юм. 1985 онд эхний хэвлэл гарч байсан. Хөрсний механик болон хөрсний шинж чанарын талаархи ойлголтыг гүнзгийрүүлэн судлахыг хүсвэл энэхүү ном их хэрэг болно.

 

1 Geotechnical Engineering—A Historical

Perspective 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Geotechnical Engineering Prior to the 18th Century 1
1.3 Preclassical Period of Soil Mechanics (1700–1776) 5
1.4 Classical Soil Mechanics—Phase I (1776–1856) 6
1.5 Classical Soil Mechanics—Phase II (1856–1910) 6
1.6 Modern Soil Mechanics (1910–1927) 7
1.7 Geotechnical Engineering after 1927 8
1.8 End of an Era 12
References 13

2 Origin of Soil and Grain Size

2.1 Introduction 15
2.2 Rock Cycle and the Origin of Soil 15
2.3 Rock-Forming Minerals, Rock and Rock Structures 26
2.4 Soil-Particle Size 37
2.5 Clay Minerals 39
2.6 Specific Gravity (Gs) 47
2.7 Mechanical Analysis of Soil 48
2.8 Particle-Size Distribution Curve 55
2.9 Particle Shape 61
2.10 Summary 62
Problems 63
References 66

3 Weight–Volume Relationships

3.1 Introduction 67
3.2 Weight–Volume Relationships 67
3.3 Relationships among Unit Weight, Void Ratio,
Moisture Content, and Specific Gravity 70
3.4 Relationships among Unit Weight, Porosity,
and Moisture Content 74
3.5 Various Unit Weight Relationships 75
3.6 Relative Density 81
3.7 Comments on emax and emin 84
3.8 Correlations between emax, emin, emax  emin,
and Median Grain Size (D50) 87
3.9 Summary 90
Problems 90
References 92

4 Plasticity and Structure of Soil

4.1 Introduction 94
4.2 Liquid Limit (LL) 94
4.3 Plastic Limit (PL) 101
4.4 Shrinkage Limit (SL) 103
4.5 Liquidity Index and Consistency Index 109
4.6 Activity 110
4.7 Plasticity Chart 112
4.8 Soil Structure 114
4.9 Summary 119
Problems 120
References 121

5 Classification of Soil

5.1 Introduction 123
5.2 Textural Classification 124
5.3 Classification by Engineering Behavior 126
5.4 AASHTO Classification System 126
5.5 Unified Soil Classification System 130
5.6 Comparison between the AASHTO and Unified Systems 132
5.7 Summary 142
Problems 142
References 145

6 Soil Compaction

6.1 Introduction 146
6.2 Compaction—General Principles 146
6.3 Standard Proctor Test 147
6.4 Factors Affecting Compaction 150
6.5 Modified Proctor Test 154
6.6 Empirical Relationships 154
6.7 Structure of Compacted Clay Soil 161
6.8 Effect of Compaction on Cohesive Soil Properties 163
6.9 Field Compaction 166
6.10 Specifications for Field Compaction 171
6.11 Determination of Field Unit Weight of Compaction 172
6.12 Compaction of Organic Soil and Waste Materials 179
6.13 Evaluation of Soils as Compaction Material 182
6.14 Special Compaction Techniques 182
6.15 Summary and General Comments 192
Problems 192
References 195

7 Permeability

7.1 Introduction 198
7.2 Bernoulli’s Equation 198
7.3 Darcy’s Law 200
7.4 Hydraulic Conductivity 202
7.5 Laboratory Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity 204
7.6 Relationships for Hydraulic Conductivity—Granular Soil 211
7.7 Relationships for Hydraulic Conductivity—Cohesive Soils 218
7.8 Directional Variation of Permeability 223
7.9 Equivalent Hydraulic Conductivity in Stratified Soil 225
7.10 Permeability Test in the Field by Pumping from Wells 230
7.11 In Situ Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted Clay Soils 232
7.12 Summary and General Comments 236
Problems 237
References 241

8 Seepage

8.1 Introduction 243
8.2 Laplace’s Equation of Continuity 243
8.3 Continuity Equation for Solution of Simple Flow Problems 245
8.4 Flow Nets 249
8.5 Seepage Calculation from a Flow Net 250
8.6 Flow Nets in Anisotropic Soil 254
8.7 Mathematical Solution for Seepage 256
8.8 Uplift Pressure under Hydraulic Structures 258
8.9 Seepage through an Earth Dam on an Impervious Base 259
8.10 L. Casagrande’s Solution for Seepage through an Earth Dam 262
8.11 Filter Design 264
8.12 Summary 267
Problems 267
References 270

9 In Situ Stresses

9.1 Introduction 271
9.2 Stresses in Saturated Soil without Seepage 271
9.3 Stresses in Saturated Soil with Upward Seepage 276
9.4 Stresses in Saturated Soil with Downward Seepage 280
9.5 Seepage Force 280
9.6 Heaving in Soil Due to Flow around Sheet Piles 285
9.7 Use of Filters to Increase the Factor of Safety against Heave 290
9.8 Effective Stress in Partially Saturated Soil 293
9.9 Capillary Rise in Soils 294
9.10 Effective Stress in the Zone of Capillary Rise 296
9.11 Summary and General Comments 299
Problems 300
References 304

10 Stresses in a Soil Mass

10.1 Introduction 305
10.2 Normal and Shear Stresses on a Plane 306
10.3 The Pole Method of Finding Stresses along a Plane 310
10.4 Stresses Caused by a Point Load 312
10.5 Vertical Stress Caused by a Vertical Line Load 314
10.6 Vertical Stress Caused by a Horizontal Line Load 317
10.7 Vertical Stress Caused by a Vertical Strip Load (Finite Widthand Infinite Length) 318
10.8 Linearly Increasing Vertical Loading on an Infinite Strip 323
10.9 Vertical Stress Due to Embankment Loading 326
10.10 Vertical Stress below the Center of a Uniformly Loaded Circular Area 330
10.11 Vertical Stress at Any Point below a Uniformly Loaded Circular Area 331
10.12 Vertical Stress Caused by a Rectangularly Loaded Area 335
10.13 Influence Chart for Vertical Pressure 342
10.14 Summary and General Comments 345
Problems 346
References 352

11 Compressibility of Soil

11.1 Introduction 353
11.2 Contact Pressure and Settlement Profile 354
11.3 Relations for Elastic Settlement Calculation 356
11.4 Fundamentals of Consolidation 364
11.5 One-Dimensional Laboratory Consolidation Test 368
11.6 Void Ratio–Pressure Plots 370
11.7 Normally Consolidated and Overconsolidated Clays 374
11.8 General Comments on Conventional Consolidation Test 376
11.9 Effect of Disturbance on Void Ratio–Pressure Relationship 378
11.10 Calculation of Settlement from One-Dimensional Primary Consolidation 379
11.11 Correlations for Compression Index (Cc) 381
11.12 Correlations for Swell Index (Cs) 383
11.13 Secondary Consolidation Settlement 389
11.14 Time Rate of Consolidation 391
11.15 Determination of Coefficient of Consolidation 400
11.16 Calculation of Consolidation Settlement under a Foundation 408
11.17 A Case History—Settlement Due to a Preload Fill for Construction of Tampa VA Hospital 410
11.18 Methods for Accelerating Consolidation Settlement 414
11.19 Precompression 416
11.20 Summary and General Comments 420
Problems 421
References 427

12 Shear Strength of Soil

12.1 Introduction 429
12.2 Mohr–Coulomb Failure Criterion 429
12.3 Inclination of the Plane of Failure Caused by Shear 431
12.4 Laboratory Test for Determination of Shear
Strength Parameters 433
12.5 Direct Shear Test 433
12.6 Drained Direct Shear Test on Saturated Sand and Clay 438
12.7 General Comments on Direct Shear Test 440
12.8 Triaxial Shear Test-General 445
12.9 Consolidated-Drained Triaxial Test 446
12.10 Consolidated-Undrained Triaxial Test 455
12.11 Unconsolidated-Undrained Triaxial Test 461
12.12 Unconfined Compression Test on Saturated Clay 463
12.13 Empirical Relationships between Undrained Cohesion (cu) and Effective Overburden Pressure ( ) 464
12.14 Sensitivity and Thixotropy of Clay 466
12.15 Strength Anisotropy in Clay 469
12.16 Vane Shear Test 470
12.17 Other Methods for Determining Undrained Shear Strength 476
12.18 Shear Strength of Unsaturated Cohesive Soils 476
12.19 Stress Path 479
12.20 Summary and General Comments 484
Problems 485
References 489

13 Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest, Rankineand Coulomb

13.1 Introduction 491
13.2 At-Rest, Active, and Passive Pressures 491
13.3 Earth Pressure At-Rest 494
13.4 Earth Pressure At-Rest for Partially Submerged Soil 496
13.5 Rankine’s Theory of Active Pressure 499
13.6 Theory of Rankine’s Passive Pressure 501
13.7 Yielding of Wall of Limited Height 503
13.8 Rankine Active and Passive Pressure with Sloping Backfill 504
13.9 Diagrams for Lateral Earth-Pressure Distribution against Retaining Walls 506
13.10 Coulomb’s Active Pressure 518
13.11 Graphic Solution for Coulomb’s Active Earth Pressure 521
13.12 Coulomb’s Passive Pressure 527
13.13 Active Force on Retaining Walls with Earthquake Forces 527
13.14 Common Types of Retaining Walls in the Field 536
13.15 Summary and General Comments 543
Problems 545
References 549

14 Lateral Earth Pressure:Curved Failure Surface

14.1 Introduction 550
14.2 Retaining Walls with Friction 550
14.3 Properties of a Logarithmic Spiral 552
14.4 Procedure for Determination of Passive
Earth Pressure (Pp)—Cohesionless Backfill 554
14.5 Coefficient of Passive Earth Pressure (Kp) 556
14.6 Caquot and Kerisel Solution for Passive Earth Pressure (Granular Backfill) 560
14.7 Passive Force on Walls with Earthquake Forces 563
14.8 Braced Cuts—General 565
14.9 Determination of Active Thrust on Bracing Systems of Open Cuts—Granular Soil 567
14.10 Determination of Active Thrust on Bracing Systems for Cuts—Cohesive Soil 569
14.11 Pressure Variation for Design of Sheetings, Struts, and Wales 569
14.12 Summary 574
Problems 574
References 576

15 Slope Stability

15.1 Introduction 577
15.2 Factor of Safety 579
15.3 Stability of Infinite Slopes 580
15.4 Infinite Slope with Steady-state Seepage 583
15.5 Finite Slopes—General 586
15.6 Analysis of Finite Slopes with Plane Failure Surfaces (Culmann’s Method) 587
15.7 Analysis of Finite Slopes with Circular Failure Surfaces—General 590
15.8 Mass Procedure—Slopes in Homogeneous Clay Soil with f  0 591
15.9 Recent Developments on Critical Circle of Clay Slopes (f  0) 598
15.10 Mass Procedure—Slopes in Homogeneous c  f Soil 599
15.11 Ordinary Method of Slices 606
15.12 Bishop’s Simplified Method of Slices 614
15.13 Stability Analysis by Method of Slices for Steady-state Seepage 616
15.14 Solutions for Steady-state Seepage 617
15.15 A Case History of Slope Failure 628
15.16 Morgenstern’s Method of Slices for Rapid Drawdown Condition 632
15.17 Fluctuation of Factor of Safety of Slopes in Clay Embankment on Saturated Clay 634
15.18 Summary 638
Problems 638
References 642

16 Soil Bearing Capacity for Shallow Foundations

16.1 Introduction 644
16.2 Ultimate Soil-Bearing Capacity for Shallow Foundations 645
16.3 Terzaghi’s Ultimate Bearing Capacity Equation 647
16.4 Effect of Groundwater Table 651
16.5 Factor of Safety 652
16.6 General Bearing Capacity Equation 655
16.7 A Case History for Evaluation of the Ultimate Bearing Capacity 659
16.8 Ultimate Load for Shallow Foundations Under Eccentric Load 663
16.9 Bearing Capacity of Sand Based on Settlement 668
16.10 Plate-Load Test 670
16.11 Summary and General Comments 673
Problems 673
References 676

17 Subsoil Exploration

17.1 Introduction 678
17.2 Planning for Soil Exploration 679
17.3 Boring Methods 680
17.4 Common Sampling Methods 684
17.5 Sample Disturbance 689
17.6 Correlations for Standard Penetration Test 689
17.7 Other In Situ Tests 694
17.8 Rock Coring 699
17.9 Soil Exploration Report 701
17.10 Summary 701
Problems 703
References 704
Appendix A
A Generalized Case for Rankine Active and Passive
Pressure–Granular Backfill 706
Answers to Selected Problems 714
Index 722

ТАТАХ

Түлхүүр үг
Ихийг харуулах

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Close